Finally, the data set does not contain any information on which party is the first responsible for the end of the agreement. All of the above theories focus on the reliability of the United States as negotiating partners. Agreements that are denounced for reasons that have nothing to do with the U.S. commitment should therefore not be included in the analysis. Footnote 85 At the same time, the identity of the party responsible for terminating the contract is not respected, unless the researcher analyzes each termination individually. Even then, identifying the responsible party is often a subjective assessment. However, the inability to monitor accountability for the breakdown of agreements is unlikely to result in significant distortions in the estimates derived from the data. Bias is introduced only if an unsured variable is related to both interest variables and outcome variables. This means that bias is only introduced if the probability for the other party to violate the agreement is different between the contracts and the executive agreements of Congress. Footnote 86 As noted above, only U.S. reliability is related to the distinction between contracts and executive agreements. It would therefore be surprising if the tendency to resign from a partner country was linked to the choice of the political instrument.
Footnote 87 6 This figure is based on a number of Library of Congress contract documents approved by the 111th, 112th, 113th or 114th U.S. Congress. See www.congress.gov. First of all, the Grambsch and Therneau tests were developed in a medical context where sample sizes are generally less than one hundred, making the test insensitive to minor irregularities. For sample sizes as large as those in this study, small confidence intervals give significant p values, even if the data show negligible anomalies. In addition to formal tests, it is therefore recommended to conduct a visual examination of the residues of Schonfeld. Footnote 127 Such a visual study does not lead to any significant violation of the acceptance of proportional risks for any of the material covariates and a violation only for a handful of countries, usually for countries with which the United States.
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