The German-Soviet pact, signed in August 1939, paved the way for the invasion and joint occupation of Poland in September. By signing the agreement, Hitler avoided the threat of a great war on two fronts. Stalin was then allowed to extend the Soviet regime to the Baltic states (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia) and parts of Romania and Finland. The pact was an agreement of convenience between the two bitter ideological enemies. It allowed Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union to dismember spheres of influence in Eastern Europe, when they did not want to attack each other for ten years. Less than two years later, however, Hitler launched an invasion of the Soviet Union. After the Baltic States were forced to accept treaties, Stalin turned to Finland and was convinced that his surrender could be achieved without much effort.  The Soviets claimed territories on the Karelian isthism, the islands of the Gulf of Finland and a military base near the Finnish capital Helsinki, which Finland refused.  The Soviets staged Mainila`s shots and used it as a pretext to withdraw from the Soviet-Finnish non-aggression pact.  The Red Army attacked in November 1939.  [Page needed] At the same time, Stalin deployed a puppet government in the Democratic Republic of Finland.   [Clarification necessary] The head of the Leninvad military district, Andrei Shudanov, commissioned a firm piece by Dmitri Shostakovich, a suite on Finnish subjects, to be listed, while the Marching Chapels of the Red Army would parody by Helsinki.  After the Finnish defence had surprisingly held for three months and caused heavy losses to Soviet forces under the command of Semyon Tymoshenko, the Soviets were committed to an intermediate peace.
Finland left the southeastern regions of Karelia (10% of Finnish territory),  [necessary pages], resulting in the loss of home of about 422,000 Karelia (12% of the Finnish population).  The number of official casualties in the Soviet Union exceeded 200,000, although Soviet Prime Minister Nikita Khrushchev later claimed that the victims could have been one million.  This contract is concluded for a period of ten years, with the understanding that the term of the contract will automatically be renewed for a further five years, as one of the High Contracting Parties does not report it one year before the expiry of that period. Tripartite Pact, an agreement reached by Germany, Italy and Japan on September 27, 1940, one year after the start of World War II. It has created a defence alliance between countries and should, to a large extent, prevent the United States from entering the conflict. Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and Croatia have signed the pact. The territories occupied by the Soviet Union were transformed into republics of the Soviet Union. In the two years following the annexation, the Soviets arrested about 100,000 Polish citizens and deported between 350,000 and 1,500,000, of whom between 250,000 and 1,000 died, mostly civilians.   Forced relocations took place in gulag labour camps and exile settlements in remote areas of the Soviet Union.  According to Norman Davies, nearly half of them had died until July 1940.  The Soviet Union had not been able to conclude a collective agreement with Britain and France against Nazi Germany, notably at the Munich conference in September 1938. In early 1939, the Soviets faced the prospect of resisting Germany`s military expansion in Eastern Europe almost alone and began to seek a change in policy.
On May 3, 1939, the Soviet head of state, Joseph Stalin, dismissed The Jewish Foreign Minister Maksim Litvinov and replaced him with Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov, who soon entered into negotiations with the Nazi Foreign Minister, Joachim von Ribbentrop.
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